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Today the large gas turbines have pressure ratios ranging from 15:1 to as high as 30:1, and firing temperatures as high as 2500 °F (2071 °C).
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Turbine Inlet Temperature. Turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 1400 °C are achieved by using Ni-based alloys, single crystal blades, and sophisticated convective and film cooling as well as ceramic blade coating. From: Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production, 2015. Related terms: Heat Exchanger; Gas Turbine; Turbine
Gas turbines can be particularly efficient when waste heat from the turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration. The 605 MW General Electric 9HA achieved a 62.22% efficiency rate with temperatures as high as 1,540 °C (2,800 °F).
Today the large gas turbines have pressure ratios ranging from 15:1 to as high as 30:1, and firing temperatures as high as 2500 °F (2071 °C). These high-pressure ratios lead to a very narrow operational margin in the gas turbine compressor.
perature and is not generally a temperature that exists in a gas turbine cycle; it is calculated from a heat balance on the combustion system, using parameters obtained in a field test. This ISO reference temperature will always be less than the true firing temperature as defined by GE, in many cases by 100 F/38 C or more for machines
Simple, regenerative, or combined cycle gas turbines are used at IPP; however, most installations use combined cycle gas turbines. The gas turbines used at IPP can range from 1,000 hp to over 100,000 hp. The larger electric utilities use gas turbines mostly as peaking units for meeting power demand peaks
The highest temperature in the cycle occurs at the end of the combustion process, and it is limited by the maximum temperature that the turbine blades can withstand. As usual, metallurgical considerations (about 1700 K) place an upper limits on thermal efficiency.
The gas turbine that marked the latest achievement is the 60 hertz (Hz) M501J, which MHI proprietarily developed in the spring of 2009. The new turbine is able to withstand a temperature 100 degrees higher than the 1,500°C-class G-Series gas turbines, which was the highest temperature until now.
Which Temperature? First consider the current gas turbine technology landscape where the main classification parameter is TIT (Figure 2). In terms of sheer numbers, it is dominated by standard E (1,300 C TIT) and F class (1,400 C) units with air-cooled (utilizing com-pressor bleeds) turbine hot gas path (HGP). Recent introduction
For every K rise in ambient temperature above ISO conditions the Gas Turbine loses 0.1% in terms of thermal efficiency and 1.47 MW of its Gross (useful) Power Output. This relationship is a problem hot climates where peak demand will occur at the same time as reduced gas turbine output. It’s also a benefit in cold countries where peak often occurs when it’s very cold.
As with all cyclic heat engines, a higher maximum working temperature in the machine means greater efficiency (Carnot's Law), but in a turbine it also means that more energy is lost as waste heat through the hot exhaust gases whose temperatures are typically well over 1,000°C . Consequently simple cycle turbine efficiencies are quite low.